The Alan Sondheim Mail Archive

June 9, 2005

Copperton Up

the Bingham (Canyon) Copper Mine (Kennecott Copper Mine) contains the
world's largest quarry, a mountain decimated and replaced by a hole
roughly 2.5 miles wide, 1/2 mile deep. Copperton is a town outside of the
quarry. the photographs were taken at the quarry base. elsewhere i've
documented the hole itself, as anyone can, either from Worldwind or from a
lookout at the edge of the excavation.

towns were built on the slopes. thanks to automation, a workforce of 1000s
has been reduced to 800-some (1400-some by other accounts).

I wanted to capture the grandeur and agony of the landscape!
I have succeeded!


Date: Thu, 9 Jun 2005 18:30:52 -0300 (GMT-03:00)
Subject: Amazon News - June 9th, 2005

Amazon News
Friends of the Earth - Brazilian Amazon <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns =
"urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

Amazon News is a weekly information service provided by, the largest bilingual site on the Brazilian Amazon
region, in partnership with several Brazilian media.

Its publisher is Friends of the Earth - Brazilian Amazon, a Brazilian
non-profit and public interest registered organization.


Dear Friend,
read our latest Editorial:
Green Mafia: is time to catch the wave

The news this week:
Federalisation of assassination of Dorothy Stang is denied
Superior Tribunal de Justi�a - 06/08/2005

IBAMA's ex-director denies fraud and has support
O Estado de S.Paulo - 06/08/2005

BNDES to finance sustainable development in Acre state
Radiobr�s - 06/08/2005

PF liberate 35 men from slave-like work conditions in Para state
O Estado de S.Paulo - 06/08/2005

Workers Party member states that he received contribution from timber
O Estado de S.Paulo - 06/07/2005

Illegal loggers decimating the Amazon and inciting tribal genocide
The Independent - 06/06/2005

FUNAI in Manaus to have Indigenous director
ISA- Instituto Socioambiental - 06/06/2005

Administrative regulation will offer information on environmental
licensing in Brazil
Minist�rio do Meio Ambiente - 06/06/2005

Cities swell in Amazonia
O Estado de S.Paulo - 06/05/2005

Suspects of forming an organized criminal group to finance the Workers
Party's campaign
O Estado de S.Paulo - 06/05/2005

Dozens held over Amazon destruction
The Guardian - 06/04/2005

More than 80 are arrested for the involvement in illegal timber
extraction - 06/03/2005

IBAMA's president doubts denouncements made against its director, however
it will be profoundly investigated
IBAMA - 06/03/2005

Rice farmers state that they will not leave the Raposa Serra do Sol
Indigenous Territory
Radiobr�s - 06/03/2005

Environment offers R$ 6 million for municipalities in the BR-163 roadway
Radiobr�s - 06/03/2005

Proposed law for the Administration of Public Forests is approved by the
Congress' special commission
ISA- Instituto Socioambiental - 06/02/2005

PF exposes the fragility and corruption in Amazonia's environmental
Greenpeace Brasil - 06/02/2005

MP investigates deviation of R$ 1.3 million in Rondonia
O Estado de S.Paulo - 06/02/2005

Protest vs. the reserve blocks the road and isolates Roraima
Ag�ncia Estado - 06/02/2005

More news
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"Amazon is not just a forest"

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Thu, 09 Jun 2005 12:27:09 -0700
From: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory <>
To: "" <>
Subject: NASA Announces Spectacular Day of the Comet

PASADENA, CALIF. 91109 TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011

Dolores Beasley (202) 358-1753
NASA Headquarters, Washington

D.C. Agle (818) 393-9011
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

News Release: 2005-098				           			June 9, 2005

NASA Announces Spectacular Day of the Comet

After a voyage of 173 days and 431 million kilometers (268 million miles), NASA's Deep
Impact spacecraft will get up-close and personal with comet Tempel 1 on July 4 (EDT).

The first of its kind, hyper-speed impact between space-borne iceberg and copper-fortified
probe is scheduled for approximately 1:52 a.m. EDT on Independence Day (10:52 p.m. PDT
on July 3). The potentially spectacular collision will be observed by the Deep Impact
spacecraft, and ground and space-based observatories.

"We are really threading the needle with this one," said Rick Grammier, Deep Impact project
manager at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. "In our quest of a great
scientific payoff, we are attempting something never done before at speeds and distances
that are truly out of this world."

During the early morning hours of July 3 (EDT), the Deep Impact spacecraft will deploy a 1-
meter-wide (39-inch-wide) impactor into the path of the comet, which is about half the size
of Manhattan Island, N.Y. Over the next 22 hours, Deep Impact navigators and mission
members located more than 133 million kilometers (83 million miles) away at JPL, will steer
both spacecraft and impactor toward the comet. The impactor will head into the comet and
the flyby craft will pass approximately 500 kilometers (310 miles) below.

Tempel 1 is hurtling through space at approximately 37,100 kilometers per hour (23,000
miles per hour or 6.3 miles per second).  At that speed you could travel from New York to
Los Angeles in less than 6.5 minutes. Two hours before impact, when mission events will be
happening so fast and so far away, the impactor will kick into autonomous navigation mode.
It must perform its own navigational solutions and thruster firings to make contact with the

"The autonav is like having a little astronaut on board," Grammier said. "It has to navigate
and fire thrusters three times to steer the wine cask-sized impactor into the mountain-sized
comet nucleus closing at 23,000 miles per hour."

The crater produced by the impact could range in size from a large house up to a football
stadium, and from two to 14 stories deep. Ice and dust debris will be ejected from the crater,
revealing the material beneath. The flyby spacecraft has approximately 13 minutes to take
images and spectra of the collision and its result before it must endure a potential blizzard of
particles from the nucleus of the comet.

"The last 24 hours of the impactor's life should provide the most spectacular data in the
history of cometary science," said Deep Impact Principal Investigator Dr. Michael A'Hearn of
the University of Maryland, College Park. "With the information we receive after the impact,
it will be a whole new ballgame. We know so little about the structure of cometary nuclei that
almost every moment we expect to learn something new."

The Deep Impact spacecraft has four data collectors to observe the effects of the collision.
A camera and infrared spectrometer, which comprise the High Resolution Instrument, are
carried on the flyby spacecraft, along with a Medium Resolution Instrument. A duplicate of
the Medium Resolution Instrument on the impactor will record the vehicle's final moments
before it is run over by Tempel 1.

"In the world of science, this is the astronomical equivalent of a 767 airliner running into a
mosquito," said Dr. Don Yeomans, a Deep Impact mission scientist at JPL. "The impact
simply will not appreciably modify the comet's orbital path. Comet Tempel 1 poses no threat
to the Earth now or in the foreseeable future."

Deep Impact will provide a glimpse beneath the surface of a comet, where material from the
solar system's formation remains relatively unchanged. Mission scientists expect the project
will answer basic questions about the formation of the solar system, by offering a better look
at the nature and composition of the frozen celestial travelers we call comets.

The University of Maryland is responsible for overall Deep Impact mission management,
and project management is handled by JPL. The spacecraft was built for NASA by Ball
Aerospace & Technologies Corporation, Boulder, Colo.

For more information about Deep Impact on the Internet, visit: .

For information about NASA and agency programs on the Internet, visit: .


To remove yourself from all mailings from NASA Jet Propulsion Labratory, please go to

Of Speech As of Number

Number names in various languages (for example Japanese) alter in relation
to their quantified; '3 books' and '3 people' may have different words for
'3' altogether. In English, the number words are unary, however.

However, and this relates to issues of analog/digital (which I continue of
course to pursue), there are three 'speakings' of number, dependent on

1. 2118 = "two thousand, one hundred and eighteen" - indicative of
_quantity._ For example: "There are two thousand, one hundred and eighteen
bison on the island." Note the comma and connective may be omitted: "There
are two thousand one hundred eighteen bison on the island." Think of this
as the _indexical._

2. 2118 - "twenty-one eighteen" - indicative of date (within a serial /
linear construct). This is number as _sign._ For example: "In the year
twenty-one eighteen, all large mammals, except for humans, will either be
extinct or corralled." Note "twenty-one eighteen" is almost never written
out as such; the usual expression would be "In the year 2118, all large
mammals, except for humans, will either be extinct or corralled." Think of
this as the _symbolic._

3. 2118 - "two one one eight" - indicative of _identification_ For
example: "I live at two one one eight Western Boulevard, near the Monument
of Extinctions." Phone numbers and other identifications (credit card,
social security) are usually spoken in this fashion. Think of this as the

In ikonic identification, quantity and seriality are irrelevant. The
number is neither cardinal nor ordinal. In symbolic seriality,
identification is based on quantity, only in the sense that quantity
defines positionality; this is ordinal, not cardinal. In indexical
quantity, identification and seriality are weakened; the quantity of bison
(for the most part alone) is relevant. The number is cardinal.

I am stretching Peirce's notion of signs here. Nevertheless, there is some
hint of value on the horizon. Number trifurcates in the speaking; the
specificity of 3 portends the specificity of the discrete, for example.

What happens with decimals? Almost always, they are indicative of
quantity, although one can imagine an identification number of the form,
for example, "" - which would be read "twenty-one point two point
one point ninety-six." If the form is standard, one might eliminate the
"point" as in "twenty-one two one ninety-six." If the numbers are more
than two or three digits, for example "2134.9121.1." - the most likely
speaking would be "two one three four point nine one two one point one."
Telephone numbers of the form "(718)555-1235" are of this type, with the
punctuation omitted: "seven one eight [pause] five five five [pause] one
two three five."

There are exceptions to all of these; I am concerned, however, with a
general trend, at least in one language.


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