The Alan Sondheim Mail Archive

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Date: Mon, 16 Oct 2006 14:37:27 -0400
To: sondheim@PANIX.COM
Subject: Physics News Update 797

The American Institute of Physics Bulletin of Physics News
Number 797 October 16, 2006  by Phillip F. Schewe, Ben Stein,
and Davide Castelvecchi

ELEMENTS 116 AND 118 ARE DISCOVERED.  At the Joint Institute for
Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia, physicists (including
collaborators from Lawrence Livermore National Lab in the US) have
sent a beam of calcium-48 ions into a target of californium-249
atoms to create temporarily a handful of atoms representing element
118.  The nucleus for these atoms have a total atomic mass of 294
units.  In fact, only three of these atoms, the heaviest ever
produced in a controlled experiment, were observed.  After sending 2
x 10^19 calcium projectiles into the target, one atom of element 118
was discovered in the year 2002 and two more atoms in 2005.  The
researchers held up publication after seeing their first specimen in
order to find more events.  According to Livermore physicist Ken
Moody, speaking at a press conference today from Livermore, the
three events have been well studied and the odds of a statistical
fluke at work here are less than a part in ten thousand.  Caution
would naturally be on the minds of anyone announcing a new element;
Evidence for element 118 was offered once before, by a team at the
LBL lab (, but this
claim was later retracted (
when it was discovered that some of the data had been falsified.
In searching through 10^19 collision events, how do you know you
have found a new element?  Because of the clear and unique decay
sequence involving the offloading of alpha particles, nuclear
parcels consisting of two protons and two neutrons.  In this case,
nuclei of element 118 decay to become element 116 (hereby itself
discovered for the first time), and then element 114, and then
element 112 by emitting detectable alphas.  The112 nucleus
subsequently fissions into roughly equal-sized daughter particles.
The average lifetime observed for the three examples of element 118
was about one millisecond, not long enough to perform any kind of
chemical tests (you�d need an hour�s time for that).  Element 118
lies just beneath radon in the periodic table and is therefore a
kind of noble gas.
The Dubna-Livermore team previously announced the discovery of
elements 113 and 115 (
and next hope to produce element 120 by crashing a beam of iron
atoms into a plutonium target.  To build nuclei much heavier than
this you would need a beam of neutron-rich radioactive nuclei; the
proposal to build an accelerator in the US for doing just this has
been stalled. (Oganessian et al., Physical Review C, October 2006;
Livermore press release at

A SINGLE-PIXEL DIGITAL CAMERA, scientists at Rice University
believe, will reduce power consumption and storage space without
sacrificing spatial resolution. The new approach aims to confront
one of the basic dilemmas of digital imaging, namely the huge waste
factor.  Consider that a megapixel camera will, when you take the
picture, capture and momentarily store a million numbers (the light
levels from the
pixels).  No camera can store that much information for hundreds of
pictures, so an immediate data compression takes place right there
inside the camera.  A tiny microprocessor performs a Fourier
transform; that is, it converts the digital image into a weighted
sum of many sinusoid waves.  Instead of a million numbers, the
representation of the image can now been compressed into something
like 10,000 numbers, corresponding to the most important
coefficients from the mathematical transformation.  These are the
numbers actually retained for later processing into pictures.
The Rice camera saves space and energy by eliminating the first
step. It gets rid of the million pixels.  Instead it goes right to a
transformed version (about 10,000 numbers rather than a million) by
viewing the scene prismatically with a single pixel.  No, the light
from the object doesn�t go through a prism, but it is viewed about
10,000 different ways.  The light, in a quick succession of glances,
bounces off the myriad individually driven facets of a digital
micromirror device, or DMD
(  The
mirrors of a DMD (only a micron or so in size) do not image an
object or record data but merely steer light; they can be
individually angled in such a way that the light strikes a photo
detector or not, depending on whether the light is representing a
digital 1 or 0 at that moment.
The main idea is that the DMD is acting as a sort of analog optical
computer.  Each time the pixel views the object, a different set of
orientations is imposed on the array of micromirrors.  And, in an
interesting twist, the Rice camera uses random orientations.
Looking like the haphazard splotch of black and white squares of a
crossword puzzle, the DMD�s surface is reflective here and dark
there; some of the mirrors will faithfully reflect light from the
object to the pixel while others will, in effect, appear black.
Then the object is viewed again with a different micromirror
activation pattern; again the pixel will record an overall light
level.  This process recurs about 10,000 times. Later, offline on a
computer, the single pixel light levels,
along with the micromirror patterns are processed using new
algorithms to reconstruct a sharp image.  This isn�t quite the old
type of imaging process, the kind used in x-ray crystallography or
CAT scans (which also convert pinpoints of data into images), but a
new kind of imaging called compressive sensing that is only about
two years old.
To summarize, the acquisition of imaging data is reduced many-fold
(saving on data storage), only a single pixel is needed (freeing up
valuable space in the primary detector), and the bulk of the
processing can be offloaded to a remote computer rather than a chip
inside the camera, thus greatly reducing power needs and extending
the usefulness of batteries.  Rice researchers Richard Baraniuk
( and
Kevin Kelly ( say that an additional virtue of the
camera is that with only a single pixel, the detector (a photodiode)
can be as fancy as you want.  It can even accommodate wavelengths
currently unavailable to digital photography, such as x ray,
terrahertz waves, even radar.  A working camera prototype has been
built.  One of the main tasks is to reduce the time it takes to
record an image; the price for compressing space, pixels, and power
is to spread everything out in time since the cyclops-like pixel
must blink ten thousand or more times to capture the image.  As
Baraniuk says, the Rice form of photography is multiplexed in time.
The Rice results were reported last week at the Frontiers in Optics
Meeting of the Optical Society of America (OSA) held in Rochester
( (For a picture of the setup and the
imaging results, see the web page and
the research paper at )

PHYSICS NEWS UPDATE is a digest of physics news items arising
from physics meetings, physics journals, newspapers and
magazines, and other news sources.  It is provided free of charge
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Physics News Update appears approximately once a week.

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