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Date: Thu, 16 Sep 2010 09:06:56
From: donna.e.tillery@census.gov
To: Census-Bureau-Alert@lists.census.gov, Public-News-Alert@lists.census.gov
Subject: [public-news-alert] Census Bureau News: Income,
     Poverty and Health Insurance in the United States: 2009


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Report <http://www.census.gov/prod/2010pubs/p60-238.pdf>

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: THURSDAY, SEPT. 16, 2010

                                                 CB10-144

Public Information Office                             Media kit/Report

301-763-3030/763-3691                           Income data
301-763-3762 (fax)                                    Poverty data
e-mail: <pio@census.gov>                              Health insurance
                                                                         coverage
  data


                    Income, Poverty and Health Insurance
                     Coverage in the United States: 2009

                           Summary of Key Findings

    The U.S. Census Bureau announced today that real median household income
in the United States in 2009 was $49,777, not statistically different from
the 2008 median.

    The nation?s official poverty rate in 2009 was 14.3 percent, up from
13.2 percent in 2008 ? the second statistically significant annual increase
in the poverty rate since 2004. There were 43.6 million people in poverty
in 2009, up from 39.8 million in 2008 ? the third consecutive annual
increase.

    Meanwhile, the number of people without health insurance coverage rose
from 46.3 million in 2008 to 50.7 million in 2009, while the percentage
increased from 15.4 percent to 16.7 percent over the same period.

    These findings are contained in the report Income, Poverty, and Health
Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009. The following results for
the nation were compiled from information collected in the 2010 Current
Population Survey (CPS) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC):

    Income

    Race and Hispanic Origin (Race data refer to people reporting a single
    race only. Hispanics can be of any race.)

    --Among race groups, Asian households had the highest median income in
       2009. Real median income declined
    between 2008 and 2009 for non-Hispanic white and black households, while
       the changes for Asian and
    Hispanic-origin households were not statistically different. (See Table
       A.)

    Regions

    --In 2009, households in the West and Northeast had the highest median
       household incomes. (The apparent
    difference between the two regions was not statistically significant.)
       Real median income declined between 2008
    and 2009 in the Midwest and West; the changes for the Northeast and
       South were not statistically significant.
    (See Table A.)

    Nativity

    --In 2009, households maintained by naturalized citizens had the highest
       median income. Native-born
    households and those maintained by noncitizens experienced income
       declines from 2008 to 2009, in real terms.
    The changes in the median income of all foreign-born households and
       households maintained by a naturalized
    citizen were not statistically significant. (See Table A.)

    Earnings

    --In 2009, the earnings of women who worked full time, year-round were
       77 percent of that for corresponding
    men, not statistically different from the 2008 ratio.

    --The real median earnings of men who worked full time, year-round rose
       by 2.0 percent between 2008 and
    2009, from $46,191 to $47,127. For women, the corresponding increase was
       1.9 percent, from $35,609 to
    $36,278. (The difference between the 2.0 and 1.9 percent increases was
       not statistically significant.)

    Income Inequality

    --The change in income inequality between 2008 and 2009 was not
       statistically significant, as measured by
    shares of aggregate household income by quintiles and the Gini index.
       The Gini index was 0.468 in 2009. (The
    Gini index is a measure of household income inequality; 0 represents
       perfect income equality and 1 perfect
    inequality.)

    Poverty

    --The poverty rate in 2009 was the highest since 1994, but was 8.1
percentage points lower than the poverty
    rate in 1959, the first year for which poverty estimates are available.
       The number of people in poverty in 2009 is
    the largest number in the 51 years for which poverty estimates are
       available.

    --In 2009, the family poverty rate and the number of families in poverty
       were 11.1 percent and 8.8 million,
    respectively, up from 10.3 percent and 8.1 million in 2008.

    --The poverty rate and the number in poverty increased across all types
       of families: married-couple families
    (5.8 percent and 3.4 million in 2009 from 5.5 percent and 3.3 million in
       2008);
    female-householder-with-no-husband-present families (29.9 percent and
       4.4 million in 2009 from 28.7 percent
    and 4.2 million in 2008) and for male-householder-no-wife-present
       families (16.9 percent and 942,000 in 2009
    from 13.8 percent and 723,000 in 2008).

      Thresholds

    --As defined by the Office of Management and Budget and updated for
       inflation using the Consumer Price
    Index, the weighted average poverty threshold for a family of four in
       2009 was $21,954. Since the average
    annual CPI-U for 2009 was lower than the average annual CPI-U for 2008,
       poverty thresholds for 2009 are
    slightly lower than the corresponding thresholds for 2008. (See
    <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/cpstables/032010/pov/new35_000.htm> for
       the complete set of dollar value
    thresholds that vary by family size and composition.)

    Race and Hispanic Origin (Race data refer to people reporting a single
    race only. Hispanics can be of any race.)

    --The poverty rate for non-Hispanic whites was lower in 2009 than it was
       for other racial groups. The poverty
    rate is not statistically different from the 2008 poverty rate for
       Asians, but increased for all other race groups and
    for Hispanics. Table B details 2009 poverty rates and numbers in
       poverty, as well as changes since 2008 in these
    measures, for race groups and Hispanics.

    Age

    --The poverty rate increased for children younger than 18 (from 19.0
       percent in 2008 to 20.7 percent in 2009)
    and people 18 to 64 (from 11.7 percent in 2008 to 12.9 percent in 2009),
       while it declined for people 65 and
    older (from 9.7 percent in 2008 to 8.9 percent in 2009).

    Similar to the patterns observed for the poverty rate in 2009, the
       number of people in poverty increased for
    children younger than 18 (14.1 million in 2008 to 15.5 million in 2009)
       and people 18 to 64 (22.1 million in 2008
    to 24.7 million in 2009) and declined for seniors 65 and older (from 3.7
       million in 2008 to 3.4 million in 2009).

    Nativity

    --The 2009 poverty rate for naturalized citizens was not statistically
       different from 2008, while the poverty rates
    of native-born and noncitizens increased. Table B details 2009 poverty
       rates and the numbers in poverty, as well
    as changes since 2008 in these measures, by nativity.

    Regions

    --The poverty rate increased from 2008 to 2009 in the Midwest, South and
       West while all four regions had
    increases in the number of people in poverty. (The 2009 poverty rate for
       the Northeast was not statistically
    different from its 2008 poverty rate.) (See Table B.)

    Health Insurance Coverage

    --The number of people with health insurance decreased from 255.1
       million in 2008 to 253.6 million in 2009.
    Since 1987, the first year that comparable health insurance data were
       collected, this is the first year that the
    number of people with health insurance has decreased.

    --Between 2008 and 2009, the number of people covered by private health
       insurance decreased from 201.0
    million to 194.5 million, while the number covered by government health
       insurance climbed from 87.4 million to
    93.2 million. The number covered by employment-based health insurance
       declined from 176.3 million to 169.7
    million. The number with Medicaid coverage increased from 42.6 million
       to 47.8 million.

    --Comparable health insurance data were first collected in 1987. The
       percentage of people covered by private
    insurance (63.9 percent) is the lowest since that year, as is the
       percentage of people covered by
    employment-based insurance (55.8 percent). In contrast, the percentage
       of people covered by government health
    insurance programs (30.6 percent) is the highest since 1987, as is the
       percentage covered by Medicaid (15.7
    percent).

    --In 2009, 10.0 percent (7.5 million) of children under 18 were without
       health insurance. Neither estimate is
    significantly different from the corresponding 2008 estimate.

    --The uninsured rate for children in poverty (15.1 percent) was greater
       than the rate for all children.

    --In 2009, the uninsured rates decreased as household income increased:
       from 26.6 percent for those in
    households with annual incomes less than $25,000 to 9.1 percent in
       households with incomes of $75,000 or
    more.

    Race and Hispanic Origin (Race data refer to those reporting a single
    race only. Hispanics can be of any race.)

    --The uninsured rate and number of uninsured in 2009 were not
       statistically different from 2008 for Asians while
    increasing for all other race groups and for Hispanics. (See Table C.)

    Nativity

    --The proportion of the foreign-born population without health insurance
       in 2009 was nearly two-and-a-half
    times that of the native-born population. The uninsured rate was not
       statistically different for naturalized citizens
    but rose for noncitizens and the native-born. Table C details the 2009
       uninsured rate and the number of
    uninsured, as well as changes since 2008 in these measures, by nativity.

    Regions

    --The Northeast had the lowest uninsured rate in 2009. Between 2008 and
       2009, the uninsured rates and
    number of uninsured increased in all four regions. (See Table C.)

The Census Bureau?s statistical experts, with assistance from the Bureau of
Labor Statistics and in consultation with the Office of Management and
Budget, the Economics and Statistics Administration and other appropriate
agencies and outside experts, are now developing a Supplemental Poverty
Measure. The Supplemental Poverty Measure will provide an additional
measure of economic well-being. It will not replace the official poverty
measure and will not be used to determine eligibility for government
programs. See Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United
States: 2009, for more information.

The Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement is
subject to sampling and nonsampling errors. All comparisons made in the
report have been tested and found to be statistically significant at the 90
percent confidence level, unless otherwise noted.

For additional information on the source of the data and accuracy of the
estimates for the CPS, visit
<http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>.

                                     -X-

Table A. Median Household Income
                         2008        2009        Percent change in real
                                                 median income
                          (in 2009 dollars)

Region
U.S.                    $50,112     $49,777             -0.7
Northeast               $54,140     $53,073             -2.0
Midwest                 $49,922     $48,877           *-2.1
South                         $45,417     $45,615              0.4
West                    $54,876     $53,833           *-1.9

Race and Hispanic Origin of Householder
White                   $52,113     $51,861             -0.5
   White, not Hispanic         $55,319     $54,461           *-1.6
Black                   $34,088     $32,584           *-4.4
Asian                   $65,388     $65,469               0.1
Hispanic origin (any race)    $37,769     $38,039               0.7

Nativity of Householder
Native born             $50,862     $50,503           *-0.7
Foreign born                  $43,328     $43,923              1.4
    Naturalized citizen        $51,328     $51,975              1.3
    Not a citizen              $37,807     $36,089           *-4.5

*Change statistically significant at the 90 percent confidence level.

Table B. People in Poverty
(Numbers in thousands)
                           2008                            2009
                                                 Change in poverty
                     Number     Percent          Number    Percent
                                                 Number   Percent

Region
U.S.                   39,829       13.2              43,569
14.3  *3,740                  *1.1
Northeast          6,295            11.6          6,650           12.2
*355          0.6
Midwest            8,120            12.4          8,768           13.3
*648        *0.9
South                        15,862       14.3        17,609
15.7  *1,747            *1.4
West               9,552            13.5        10,542            14.8
*990        *1.3

Race and Hispanic Origin
White             26,990            11.2        29,830            12.3
*2,841            *1.1
   White, not Hispanic   17,024              8.6       18,530
9.4   *1,506            *0.8
Black               9,379           24.7          9,944           25.8
*565        *1.1
Asian               1,576           11.8          1,746           12.5
*169          0.6
Hispanic origin               10,987            23.2        12,350
25.3  *1,363            *2.1

Nativity
Native      born        33,293            12.6        36,407
13.7  *3,114            *1.1
Foreign born              6,536           17.8          7,162
19.0     *626           *1.3
    Naturalized citizen    1,577           10.2          1,736
10.8       160            0.6
    Not a citizen          4,959           23.3          5,425
25.1     *466           *1.8

*Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.


Table C. People Without Health Insurance Coverage
(Numbers in thousands)
                           2008                           2009
                                                 Change
                     Number     Percent         Number             Percent
                                                       Number      Percent

Region
U.S.              46,340            15.4        50,674            16.7
*4,335            *1.3
Northeast           6,277           11.6          6,789           12.4
*512        *0.8
Midwest             7,588           11.6          8,770           13.3
*1,181            *1.7
South                   20,154            18.2        22,105
19.7  *1,951            *1.5
West              12,321            17.4        13,011            18.3
*690        *0.9

Race and Hispanic Origin
White             34,890            14.5        38,399            15.8
*3,509            *1.4
   White, not Hispanic   21,322            10.8        23,658
12.0  *2,336            *1.2
Black               7,284           19.1          8,102           21.0
*818        *1.8
Asian               2,344           17.6          2,409           17.2
65           -0.4
Hispanic origin               14,558            30.7        15,820
32.4  *1,263            *1.7

Nativity
Native                  34,036            12.9        37,694
14.1  *3,658            *1.3
Foreign born            12,304            33.5        12,980
34.5     *677           *1.0
    Naturalized citizen    2,792           18.0          3,044
19.0     *252             1.0
    Not a citizen          9,511           44.7          9,936
46.0     *425           *1.3
*Change statistically significant at the 90 percent confidence leve

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