The Alan Sondheim Mail Archive

December 31, 2017

Freeze geology and Happy Holidays!

The Providence River is actually an estuary, a tidal basis, a
place of mixed (saline, fresh) waters; this year of course it
has frozen over. With the movement of the tides, ice piles up
against the shore as the levels rise and fall; the result is
breathtaking. We've been going out in 0f wind-chill weather,
taking images in the fading light. Today for example it was 9f
before the wind, the tide was high, I'm somewhat sick, but in
miniature the ice looks like 19th-century Arctic and amazes us.
Ironically, even though today was colder than yesterday, there
were more open areas in the river - this might be the result of
stress created by the tide raising the ice; by the mixing of
saline and waters; by the limited generation of heat as a
result; by saline water rising through broken ice; by none of
this. Here are some images, with two species of gulls hunkered
down on the ice -

k17% ./factor 2018
2018: 2 1009 (couple of factor friends)
k18% ./factor 2019
2019: 3 673  (couple of factor friends
k19% ./factor 2017
2017: 2017 (isolated, dark, no factor friends)
k20% ./factor 2020
2020: 2 2 5 101 (many happy factor friends)


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